THE DIGITAL PARADOX OF CHOICE – LEARNING TO MOVE TO BETTER DIGITAL DESIGN OUTCOMES
As a practitioner in business systems, I have seen many information technology changes over the years. What has been surprising is that with each new technology era had an accompanying set of principles and beliefs that had a certitude in defining the “right solution” at that time. The technology would fit the situation, the location, the cost, the telecommunications network speed, availability of new skills and all the other features that made that technology “epoc”. Yet as time passed these views would change as new technology innovation came along and offered new faster, better, and cheaper ways of doing things.
Many commentators have drawn this conclusion too. Technology passes through a cycle of introduction to a market and if popular grows in demand that would then plateau as it matured, and finally decline in demand as new better technologies and ways of working came along to replace it. Technology development cycles are becoming faster, not years but potentially quarterly, monthly or continually at any moment, releasing new versions to compete for customers and buyers. Indeed, the barriers to access such technology and deploying it into a market via a mobile phone for example, can be near instantaneous and free, offering real-time service to consumers and providers alike. Some changes are not always gentle stepwise incremental versions of previous products and services but often introduced disruptive innovation that could make existing products and competitors obsolete and change the structure and demand of whole markets. Further recent research shows evidence that new technology is enabling new kinds of business and social intelligence that enable completely new enterprise capabilities that may have benefits, both in superior performance and usage experience and downsides of removal of jobs by automation, and loss of market share (1) (2) (3) (4).
A digital paradox of scale and choice
There is an emerging paradox at the heart of this technology cycle. The paradox I speak of is that technology that is seeking to support or social lives and business is itself becoming so integrated with the very business and social context that it can no longer be separated.
With the rise of massive scale digitization of data and an enormous abundance of technology choice available. This, together with the level of pervasiveness that technologies now integrate into every part of our daily lives at home, at work and across all industry sectors. The paradox is that information technology is no longer just a technology cycle unto itself but is an integral part of how products and services are defined, sold and delivered. Buildings, automobiles, transport systems and even our human bodies can have embedded technology monitoring, reporting, and controlling them in varying degrees. It is integral to defining and enabling the business processes of organizations and thereby represents the capabilities of those companies way to operate describing their operating model. Furthermore, due to the breadth of choice these have become ecosystems of connected devices, content and enterprise and private users and business processes. Technology “clusters” have formed around mobile devices, digital content and software apps services facilitated by the increasingly pervasive telecommunications networks, broadband connectivity and network standards enable.
The technological Paradox
Technological thinking is not separate human and machine automation, or business technology , but is a “whole of life” perspective. The environment and living context is entangled through the technology becoming part of being.
Table 0- 1 The technological paradox
To illustrate this point, there are many examples of technological ecosystems caused by this “clustering effect” of digitization. Here are just a few introductory examples list below that we will expand in this book and explore these and others in the case studies. This phenomenon is at the heart of the digital enterprise and how technologies connect into the enterprise and market value chain.
A few introductory examples of consumer and industrial technological ecosystems that can be described with digitization
Mobile device services ecosystems, examples: android apple, windows, blackberry, skype, Voovoo, huddle, messager apps: Whatsapp, Facebook
Search engine recommendations ecosystems, examples: Crawler-based: google, bing, alltheweb, Directories: yahoo, AOL Search, Lycos, AskJeeves,
Social media ecosystems, examples: facebook, twitter, LinkedIN, google+, Yammer, Vine, YouTube, Pinterest, Digg, Reddit, various Blogs, Bulletin boards, Evernote, various wiki’s
Content delivery ecosystems, examples: YouTube, Flickr, Apple iTunes, Xbox media, amazon eBooks
Data analytical ecosystems, examples: marketing consumer analytics, surveillance and reporting, data aggregation, data simulation forecasts and prediction, research analysis
Cyber security ecosystems, examples: identity and authorization management, archive, virtual private networks, risk and fraud detection, antivirus, authorization services
Gaming ecosystems, examples: mobile game apps, gamer spectators: twitch, community gaming: Xbox one, ps4, various gambling platforms
Health record ecosystems, examples: patient records, translation to bench research, patient care status monitoring, test results service coordination
Machine control ecosystems, examples: automotive engine monitoring, building energy control, voice recognition services, automotive infotainment and advanced driver assist
Network and infrastructure hosting ecosystems, example: cloud storage, telecoms networks, multi-media streaming, content distribution networks
Sensor ecosystems, examples: automated alarm, proximity detectors, smart light bulbs, room thermostats, lifestyle exercise wearable devices, Near Field Communications NFC, software agent automation, QR readers
Robotics and Artificial intelligence ecosystems, examples: actuators, fixed, movable, industrial robots, domestic robots, medical robots, service robots, entertainment robots. Space robots, hobby and competition robots, drones, software agents, avatars, image recognition, voice recognition, Natural language processing, chat-bots, synthetic emulation, neural nets, robot learning nets
Materials, products management and replication ecosystems, examples: online directories, catalogs, marketplaces, Computer aided design and manufacturer, 3 D printing, computer aided assembly, computer aided materials tracking, tagging, RFID, NFC, EPC, QR codes
Trading portal ecosystems, examples: Retail: eBay, Amazon, Financial share trading, Wholesale supply marketplaces
Financial payments ecosystems, examples: MasterCard, Visa, American Express, Amazon payments, Paypal, Google checkout, iWallet, POS payment devices, ATM devices
Application software ecosystems, examples: mobile app stores, open source development, Software as a Service downloads
Table 0- 2 Examples of consumer and industrial technological ecosystems
The wide scale availability and connectedness of these ecosystems have created markets within these technology clusters. This is part of the paradox in that these ecosystems have become entangled with the enterprise and the economy. This infusion have blurred the boundaries between the physical and the digital world. The choice and usage of digital content, the devices, and services in a sense is now a collective experience through the individuals and the enterprise use of those digital technologies.
This paradox has great significance in the way it impacts the meaning of social and business experience. Understanding and planning strategic enterprise and technology ha to rise up to the level of ecosystems and how they operate their digital enterprise in the wider digital ecosystems.
This type of technological design thinking is all around us, changing how competition in technology products and services works and how the enterprise and economy need to think as they transition to the digital enterprise and the digital economy.
The anatomy of the digital economy
The consequences of this paradox are that technology can simultaneously drive both individual customer experience outcomes and also shape and create whole market performance outcomes. The cost of scaling and offering this kind of experience is becoming a more multifaceted as the human population grows and the burden of supporting technological infrastructure to enable this becomes more complex financially, technically and socially.
While this is true for large scale investments, the opposite is also happening with the low cost in falling memory storage and computing prices. This in turn has lowered the barriers to consumer adoption as seen very visibly growth in the mobile smartphones, eBooks, music and media subscriptions and all manner of social network facilitated online marketplaces for ecommerce.
In other cases however, the development of technology is becoming increasingly more expensive to achieve performance advances, raising the entry barrier of investment and skills to compete in market. We see this in examples such as large scale cloud data center hosting, advance medical devices, complex machine learning algorithms in financial market trading to embedded technology for advanced aerospace engine design.
This is the anatomy of the digital economy; it is the trade-off of these technology cycles and scale of opportunities to affect outcomes at many levels. How does the products and services and markets competitiveness change? As each new technology is developed what is the cost and benefits of the outcomes? How can enterprise and practitioners define trajectories for their capabilities and skills?
Let us examine three industry sector examples of this paradox and the challenges facing practitioners
Example 1: Healthcare Connected Health
In the health care market, the cost per treatment in area such as new drugs for treating depression, left-ventricular assistance devices, or implantable defibrillators may be raising the overall cost of health, yet how do we value this if patient quality of life is improving and life extending. While lower cost drugs and vaccines may be enabling better overall patient outcomes.
Example 2: Cities Smart Cities
In the smart building energy market, the introduction of smart heating and ventilation has the potential to revolutionize building energy consumption. Yet these technologies again require sensors and infrastructure investment to make such a reality. The case for the digital enterprise and the impact of value on society and worth to citizens may need to move beyond individual cases and buildings to a larger picture of how the working spaces and services may improve the quality and cost control.
Example 3: Supply chain Intelligent Supply chain
In logistics, the ability to source and service products and services directly to customers from different regions and locations has fundamentally changed with internet access and the ability to source and trade on-line. Virtual supply chains have emerged that alter the enterprise in the way it touches customers and coordinates its own operations and suppliers and partners to deliver on-time , high quality products and service performance. Logistics companies face both opportunities and dilemmas; on the one hand, how to optimize customer data and insight for finer precision in offering products and service offerings to customer “likes” where they want, when and how they want it. But on the other hand, how to effectively invest in digital infrastructure and mobile technology, sensors and data collection devices to better shift to new digital business models to compete and defend market share that may be increasingly under attack from web-companies able to offer similar services.
Table Error! No text of specified style in document.-1Table 0- 3 Examples of the digital paradox
Practitioners need to think how to use technologies that will build their digital enterprise journey. The choices affect outcomes at both the customer and market level that ultimately touch the enterprise performance. These issues mean that practitioners need to consider about how the outcomes can drive by digital technologies that are specific and relevant to the customer and market conditions. The following table illustrates our three example industries again the general top level outcomes from moving to a digital enterprise.
Building the bridge to the digital enterprise
The pervasiveness of today’s digital data and connected technologies directly influence the size of the market that individual enterprises may seek to serve.
The many surveys and reports from institutions and governments provide evidence of these wider market changes are already available at the global level . Examples from the OECD Organization for economic co-operation and development, WEF World Economic Forum, WHO World Health Organization, UN United Nations, IMF International Monetary Fund and World Bank reports and other institutions. These studies are setting a wider ecosystem context to the macro-economic changes that technology may impact affecting market outcomes of national economies and industry performance.
Let us look at this in our three examples in more detail.
Example 1: Connected Health
In our example of digital healthcare the impact of digital technologies has the potential to make real life changing performance outcomes. Direct patient care can be impact by mobile devices, wearable monitoring for patient care and response raising efficiencies and patient outcome quality and managing health service costs. This effect can apply to developed and developing countries where in the latter case, a lack of national infrastructure may be enhanced by low cost mobile technology access to health care.
Example 2: Smart city
The idea of smart cities has become an idea that embraces many digital technologies to drive better outcomes for the local city economy, improving the transport infrastructure throughput, optimizing energy consumption, reducing emissions and increasing employment and cultural experience.
Example 3: Intelligent Supply chain
Improving logistics performance is at the core of the economic and competitiveness agenda of National governments and enterprises. The ability to integrate local industrial and consumer activity with local and global value chains (GVC) is key to commercial enterprise success and development.
Transport and logistics in global value chains play a vital role in connecting countries, spreading technology, and promoting best practice around the world. Local commuter networks and intercity road, rail and air also affect the economic performance of local regional economies and cities in commercial and residential travel and goods and service exchange. Logistics supply chain performance matters between local destinations between cities and towns and other places of interest. It is a key determinant of the ability to move important goods and services such as basic foods stuffs and vaccines as well as create commercial working relationships for trades and creation of employment.
Big statistics of the digital technologies era
The innovation revolution of technologies is on a continual path of expansion. As a practitioner it is an astonishing fact that in recent living memory the internet and its myriad of data , software and networks did not exist commercially much before 1993, just over a mere twenty years ago. Many of the global cloud titans and social media networks did not appear in any commercial scale until fifteen years ago or in the last single decade. We see an assault of vast numbers of statistics describing this change every day from the size and scale of the internet web pages, search engine results to the growth of scale social networks that in many cases outnumber many medium sized country populations. To some extent, it would be remiss not to summarize and consider this massive scaling of data and technology phenomenon that is at the heart of digital ecosystems
In one “digital second”
It is astonishing what can happen in the internet world in one second. In a blink of an eye there are an explosion of data exchanged between humans and machines that shows no sight of slowing down.
In “one digital minute”, “one digital year”
If we consider this in the minutes and year of normal day activity, this explosion o of digitization is still only being understood as a technology phenomenon of the early twenty first century. Consider this In the one minute it takes to read this page of text there are a plethora of statistics that describe what happens in the same “one digital minute” and the rate of this change in “one digital year” (1).
In one minute on the internet in 2013-14
250,000 tweets, over four thousand a second
2.5 million Facebook user shares
2 billion emails, over 1.5 million a second
4 million google searches
Apple storedownloads 50,000 applications
8000 Vine user video shares
60,000 hours of music listening Pandora
225,000 Instagram photo posts
75 hours of YouTube video uploaded
Estimate 500 blog posts wordpress
120 new LinkedIn users
Over 135,000 minutes on average users spend on Skype
users registered (3)paypal users registered
Estimate over 40 new) (4)USA” (Thanksgiving day in monday Amazon sold estimated over 36,000 items at a peak period “cyber
Advanced cyber attack occurs once every three minutes (5)
US Navy sees 1800 cyber-attacks every minute, that’s 30 every second, or 110,000 per hour (6)
In one year, the rate of change in 2013-14
52% increase in Tablets shipments, growing faster than PCs ever did
130 million unique monthly Buzzfeed visitors, more than New York Times.
Chinese economy now makes up 16% of global GDP. 4 out of top 10 internet properties (in terms of traffic are now Chinese companies. Multi-national communities matter
Estimate Chinese surpassed English as the main language and web content used on the internet
Mobile data traffic accelerating at 81%
Digital music sales fell 6%, first time ever as due to owners surf the web while watching TVsmart phone owners, 49% table
Rise of the second screen, 66% alone, 5.3 million unique viewers watching live video (2) US
2014 FIFA world cup broke global online data stream records, in
72% of internet users are active on social media, 18-29 age bracket is 89%
Table 0- 8 What happened on the internet In 1 minute and the rate of change during the year 2013
Digital technology trends
Here are some of the current publicized statistics across industries and the use of digital technologies including Social media networks, mobility, big data, cloud computing and M2M Machine to machine Internet of things sensors.
These digital technologies are driving huge growth in scale of raw data collection, sharing and information insight on human and social behavior. The size and volume of these technologies represent markets in themselves of devices, storage, telecommunications, and other digital content and assets that collectively can be termed digital ecosystems.
Examples of digital technology trends
1.7 Billion Mobile handsets sold in 2012 and 6.8 Billion mobile subscriptions by February 2013, estimated by International Telecommunications Union ITU, corresponding to global penetration of 96 percent of the world population. This averages 9.5 mobile phones for 10 people, or about 1 device per living person. (7)
2.3 billion mobile-broadband subscriptions represented global mobile-broadband penetration reaching 32% by end 2014 – almost double the penetration rate just three years earlier (2011). In developing countries, mobile-broadband penetration will reach 84%, four times as high as developed countries (8)
x44 to x80 fold increase in mobile traffic forecast from 2011 towards 2020 (9)
Mobile data traffic to increase 18 fold from 2011 to 2016 reaching 10.8 Exabytes per month equivalent to 130 Exabytes annually by 2016 (10)
1 in 4 by 2017 and rising to 1 in 3 by 2030 of the world population are forecast to be connected to at least one form of Social media networks. (Media eMarketing survey April 2013) (11)
Big Data and rich media
The growth of data created and storage globally passed 1 zettabyte in 2010. Annual global IP traffic will surpass the zettabyte (1000 exabytes) threshold in 2016. Global IP traffic will reach 1.1 zettabytes per year or 91.3 exabytes (one billion gigabytes) per month in 2016. By 2018, global IP traffic will reach 1.6 zettabytes per year, or 131.6 exabytes per month. Internet video accounting for 61% of total internet data. (12),(13)
Data center traffic combining network and internet based data storage will reach 6.6 zettabytes annually by 2016, nearly two thirds of this will be cloud based by 2016 (14)
Internet of Things IoT and embedded technologies
26 Billion and 50 Billion to 212 billion connected objects by 2020 (2013 and 2014 forecasts) to become the Internet of Things sensors driving M2M traffic and data (15) (16) The global economic value of the Internet of Things market is forecast to drive US Dollars 1.9 trillion to 8.9 trillion and 15 trillion by 2020. (17),(18)
16 billion installed base of active wireless connected devices in 2014, (19) by 2020 this is forecast including 30.1 billion connected autonomous things. Intelligent systems will be installed and collecting data by this point.
100 million connected cars by 2022 rising to over 400 million by 2030 (20). A similar forecast predicted the number of cars connected to the Internet worldwide will grow more than sixfold to 152 million in 2020 from 23 million in 2013 (21). The study estimates $14.5 billion of value from the OEM connected car landscape from a variety of Big Data assets found in the connected car – diagnostics, location, user experience (UX) /feature tracking, and adaptive driver assistance systems (ADAS)/autonomy. Significantly, the technology growth will drive sales, value-added services and customer experience.
More than two thirds of consumers plan to buy connected technology for their homes by 2019, and nearly half say the same for wearable technology. Smart thermostats are expected to have 43% adoption in the next five years (22)
100 million Internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps worldwide up from 2.4 million in 2013 (23)
The world market for wearable technology reached $8.5 billion in revenues during 2012, shipping 96 million devices that year. By 2018, unit shipments are forecast to reach 210 million, driving $30 billion in revenue. (24),(25)
B2C commerce passed 1 trillion dollars in 2012 representing 60-80% sales share on advanced economies. (26)
Electronic payments such as cards and mobile cashless systems replaced physical cash at the point of sale in 2012 (27)
The top causes for 85% of direct financial costs of cyber-attacks in the USA (2013): 45% Fraud, 26% Repairs, 17% Theft or loss and 15% others. (28)
Key motivations behind attacks (August 2013): 49% cyber crime (theft, extortion, fraud..), 35% Hackivism, 10% cyber warfare, 6% cyber espionage. (28)
The impact of International IP Theft on the US economy (2013)- The annual losses are likely to be comparable to the current annual level of U.S. exports to Asia —Over $300 billion –, The exact figure is unknowable, but private and governmental studies tend to understate the impacts. (29)
07-1% of global GDP lost due to cybercrime, cyber espionage and other malicious cyber crimes – (The World bank estimate global GDP as US Dollars 70 Trillion) (30)
Learning lessons in successful digital enterprise
The digital minutes and explosion of growth in digital ecosystems seen in these statistics has many industry commentators in both academia and business describing data as ”a new kind of raw material” that is driving the economy. This idea is the digitization of information assets in websites, wearable devices, mobile smart phones, room light bulb sensors, automotive in-car infotainment and assisted driver automation systems, building temperature and energy consumption controls and so on. There are potentially limitless ways that these technologies and the everyday spaces and objects can converge to create new “digital workspaces” that integrate and work in and across physical workplaces. As the statistics show, they are pervading markets and locations that represent how business is done in the economy and increasingly the digital economy. The enterprise through digitization of its operations, markets and its products and services are increasingly represented by the working practices and places enabled by these technologies. The performance outcomes of the enterprise in its service levels and successful engagement with customers, suppliers and employees is more than ever intertwined with these technologies. This is the emerging digital enterprise that we will explore.
Thinking digitally in an entangled world
In one digital minute to one digital year, the growth of digitization reflects the emerging digital economy potential. Technologies cluster together to enable digital ecosystems that in turn enable digital economic activity that is converging in new digital enterprise models. Thinking digitally needs to consider these effects and connections as they become entwined in the fabric of objects, people social interactions and the wider business and markets.
Enterprises operate in a world that is increasingly permeated with technological change. Products and services are now being embedded with software based capabilities that enable objects such as TVs, watches, and cars to communicate and operate in new ways (31). Organizations today have the realistic opportunity augment working environments for employees, customers and suppliers. This is working at many levels of digitization from the personal collaboration spaces to the rooms and places we visit and the products and services we consume and interact with.
We see these changes in examples of wearable health-monitoring device that links to the mobile phone to provide health and exercise tracking. To the restaurant Wi-Fi network and QR codes enabling customers to access location content and promotions. The virtual telepresence can connect the home and family through skype and huddle and is routinely used in enterprise virtual meetings enabling remote meetings and visual presentations for virtual co-location working. The ability to connect automotive engine and spares management to logistics transport management and planning systems to optimize remote fleet scheduling and maintenance.
There is the development of whole digital marketplaces as a kind of “digital ecology” of different consumers, sellers and collaborators that we need in commercial trading sites like eBay, Alibaba, Amazon and crowd business models today.
Thinking digitally as a practitioner is all these things. Seeking ways to build an effective digital presence and digital enterprise involves a wide array of concepts and practices that many are still emerging as companies, individuals and providers learn and often through experiment how to best use digital technologies.
Some key questions for building the digital enterprise
How does the enterprise drive digital content in products and services that maximize their value for customers?
How does the enterprise transform their business process such as sales, marketing, R&D, logistics or manufacturing to support innovation using digital technologies?
How does the enterprise develop its social networking capabilities that work both internally to enable managers and employees to collaborate and work with digital technologies, and externally with customers and consumer groups and providers in the extended value chain?
and the wider global value chain (GVC)?off-shore
How does the enterprise connect and work with other business units and partners on-shore and the market and regional identity develop its “digital ecology”?does In the wider context of public policy, how
How does the boundaries between individuals, the enterprise, and the wider marketplaces change and evolve with digital technologies?
How does the enterprise identify governance, risk and compliance (GRC) policies to best manage the digital ecosystems that affect their organization?
How does privacy, confidentiality, security, and trust (PCST) change the enterprise practices to build dependable distributed systems that deal with protecting commercial Intellectual Property (IP) and the cyber threats?
The imperative of digital technologies
The mission criticality of digital technologies pervades all types of enterprise both private, public, and federal organizations and their markets.
The building of the digital enterprise is to seek answers to the question of how to alignment business and technology and see beyond the business technology narrow perspective to a wider ecosystems perspective.
The goal has moved to achieve better outcomes through digital solutions in the digital ecosystems of technologies and the enterprise.
We seek to address these questions that confront the paradox of advancing pervasive technology in the enterprise, in our living spaces and the everyday objects and services we use and consume.
There has never been a more exciting time to be in information technology.
Please check out my book the BUILDING THE DIGITAL ENTERPRISE – A PRACTITIONER PERSPECTIVE
- Business in the Digital Economy – International Series Palgrave macmillan 2015
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2. C M Christensen (1997) ‘Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Management of Innovation and Change)’, Harvard Business Review Press; Reprint edition (19 Nov 2013)
3. E Brynjolfsson, A Mcafee (2014) ‘The second machine age: work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies’ W.W. Norton & Company (18 Feb 2014)
4. C. Fey, M. Osborne (2013), ‘The future of employment: how susceptible ae jobs to computerization?’ , Oxford Martin School, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford. September 17, 2013
5. ‘World Population to 2300’, WHO World Health Organization. Department of Economic & Social Affairs, Population Division. UN ST/ESA/SER.A/236
6. ‘5th Assessment on Climate change: mitigation of climate change’, IPCC WGIII AG5 report Berlin 12 April 2014, UN Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC.
working group report and the detailed
7. ‘Global Risks 2014 , Ninth Report’ Insight Report. World Economic Forum 2014
8. OECD Health Statistics 2014 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development June 2014
9. Mental Health and work: United Kingdom, OECD Conclusions and Recommendations (2013), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
10. Health expenditure, total (% if GDP) (2013) The World Bank
11. Connecting to compete – Trade Logistics in the world economy 2014 , The logistics performance index and its indicators. The international bank for reconstruction and development, The World Bank
12. IATA Airline Industry forecast 2013-2017 (2013) - IATA International Air Transportation Association
13. ‘Interconnected economies: benefiting from global value chains’ (2013) Synthesis report. OECD
References - Big statistics of the Digital Era
1. KPCB Internet Trends 2014 report
2. 2014 FIFA World Cup breaks online streaming records, July 7 2014
3. eBay: The Year 2013 in Review, Forbes December 26 2013
4. Amazon was selling 306 items every second at its peak this year. Business Insider, December 27 2013
5. Advanced cyber attacks occur up to once every three minutes. FireEye April 3 2013
6. US Navy sees 110,000 cyber attacks every hour, or more than 30 every single second, thenextweb December 5 2012
7. World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database. (18th Edition) June 2014 , ICT
8. ICT Facts and Figures – ITU The world in 2014.
9. Future spectrum requirements estimate for terrestrial IMT Report ITU-R M.2290-0 Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services. Dec 2013. International
10. Cisco Visual Networking Index Forecast Projects 18-Fold Growth in Global Mobile Internet Data Traffic From 2011 to 2016 Cisco
11. Worldwide Social Network Users: 2013 Forecast and Comparative estimates April 2013 eMarketer
12. Cisco Visual Network Index: Forecast and Methodology 2013-2018 June 10 2014
13. The Zettabyte Era – Trends and Analysis, June 10, 2014, Cisco
14. Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2012–2017, Global Cloud Index Cisco
15. Cisco forecasts John Chambers, CE of Cisco – ‘Are you ready for the Internet of things’ Jan 15 2014 World Economic Forum Blog
16. Worldwide Internet of Things (IoT) 2013–2020 Forecast: Billions of Things, Trillions of Dollars, Oct 2013, IDC
17. Forecast: The Internet of Things, Worldwide 2013 , Gartner
18. Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines. Nov 2012 GE
19. Internet of Things Market Tracker, Market Data Q3 2014 MD-IoE-103 ABI research
20. Smart Cars and the IoT: Innovation at the Automotive Ecosystem Edge ABI Research -
21. ‘Emerging Technologies: Big Data in the Connected Car, IHS Automotive forecasts’ IHS Automotive Research
22. 2014 Internet of things study Acquity group (part of Accenture Interactive)http://www.acquitygroup.com/news-and-ideas/thought-leadership/article/detail/acquity-group-2014-internet-of-things-study
23. Smart Wireless Lighting, A Market Dynamics Report, Q4 2013. ON World.
24. Wearable Technology Report 2013 – IHS Electronics and Media
25. Wearable Technology Market Assessment September 2013 , IHS Electronics and Media
26. Ecommerce Sales Topped $1 Trillion for First Time in 2012 Feb 3 2013 eMarketer
Retail point of sale forecast 2012‐2017: Cash is No Longer King; Cards and Mobile Payments Likely to Rise. 2012 Javelin Strategy and Research
28. 2013 Cyber attacks statistics, Hackmageddon.com
29. The report of the commission on the theft of American intellectual property 2013 - The IP commission report, National Bureau of Asian Research.
30. The economic impact of cybercrime and cyber espionage – July 2013, McAfee, Center for Strategic and International Studies.
31. Y Yoo R J Boland Jr K Lyytinen A Majchzak (2012), ‘Organizing for innovation in the digital world’, Organization Science Vol 23, No.5 September-October 2012 pp. 1398-14